## Converting a Ubuntu and Windows dual-boot installation to UEFI

UEFI is the successor to BIOS for communicating with the Firmware on your Mainboard.
While the first BIOS was released with the IBM-PC in 1981, the first UEFI version (EFI 2.0) was released 25 years later in 2006 building upon the lessons learned in that timespan. So UEFI is without any doubt the more modern solution.

You could reinstall both Windows and Ubuntu to get UEFI. However it is also possible to convert existing installations of both on the fly – without the backup/ restore cycle. You should still do a backup in case something goes wrong though.

# Prerequisites

Only the 64bit Versions of Windows support UEFI. Therefore this guide assumes that you run the 64bit versions of both Windows and Ubuntu.

Furthermore verify the following items before you continue – otherwise you will not be able to finish the conversion. Use GParted in case you have not enough space before the first or after the last partition.

• 250MB space in front of first partition
Typically Windows 8 creates a 350MB System Partition upon installation. This space can be reclaimed for a 100MB EFI partiton and a new 100MB Windows System partition.
• 1-2MB behind last partiton (for the GPT backup)
• UEFI bootable Ubuntu USB drive.
You can use the startup disk creator on ubuntu with an Ubuntu 14.04+ ISO.
• UEFI bootable Windows USB drive.
You can use the Microsoft Media Creation tool for Windows 10 to get one.

to test that the sticks are indeed UEFI compatible, try booting them with CSM Mode disabled in your BIOS.

# Convert the drive to GPT

UEFI requires a GUID Partition Table (GPT), so first we need to convert from MBR to GPT.

After this step you will not be able to boot your system any more. So make sure you have the Ubuntu USB drive ready.

We will use gdisk to perform the conversion as following:

sudo gdisk /dev/sdX
Command (? for help): w

where sdX is your system drive (e.g. sda)

# Convert Windows to UEFI

Now boot your Windows USB drive and enter the command prompt as described in this Microsoft Technet article at step 6.

Continue with the following steps from the Article. Note that we have skipped steps 1-4 as we used Ubuntu to convert the disk to GPT.

We have now created a EFI partition, a new EFI compatible Windows System Partition and we have installed the Windows Bootloader to the EFI partition. Your Windows installation should now start again.
At this point you could also perform an upgrade to Windows 10, as the upgrade would erase grub from the EFI partition anyway.

Next we are going to install grub to the EFI partition and make it manage the boot.

# Enter a Ubuntu chroot

As we can not directly boot our Ubuntu installation, we will instead boot from the Ubuntu USB drive and the switch to the installed Ubuntu.
To do the switch we have to setup and enter a chroot as following

sudo mount /dev/sdXY /mnt
sudo mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt/boot/efi
sudo mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
sudo mount -o bind /sys /mnt/sys
sudo mount -t proc /proc /mnt/proc
sudo cp /proc/mounts /mnt/etc/mtab
sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/resolv.conf
sudo chroot /mnt

where sdXY is the partition where your Ubuntu system is installed (e.g. sda5)

# Convert Ubuntu to UEFI

Inside your Ubuntu Installation we have to replace grub for BIOS (aka grub-pc) with grub for UEFI (aka grub-efi) as:

sudo apt-get --reinstall install grub-common grub-efi-amd64 os-prober

this would be enough to get the system booting again, however we also aim for secure boot so we also need to install the following:

sudo apt-get install shim-signed grub-efi-amd64-signed linux-signed-generic

This installs signatures for grub and the kernel which are used to verify the integrity of these at boot. Furthermore we install shim, which is a passthrough bootloader that translates from the Microsoft signatures on you mainboard to the signatures by Canonical used to sign grub and the kernel (see this for details).

Next we finally install grub to the EFI partition by:

sudo grub-install --uefi-secure-boot /dev/sdX
sudo update-grub

where sdX is again your system drive (e.g. sda).

Now you can enable secure boot in your BIOS and benefit. Note that some BIOS implementations additionaly require you to select the trusted signatures. Look out for an option called “Install Default Secure Boot keys” or similar to select the Microsoft signatures.

## Updating Crucial MX100 Firmware with Ubuntu

There has been a Firmware update for the Crucial MX100 to MU02. In case you are running Ubuntu there is an easy way to perform the update without using a CD or USB Stick.

As the firmware comes in form of an iso image containing Tiny Core Linux, we can instruct grub2 to directly boot from it. Here is how:

1. append the following to /etc/grub.d/40_custom:
menuentry "MX100 FW Update" {
# assuming your home is on /dev/sda3 ATTENTION: change this so it matches your setup

# Building the program

To trigger a rebuild of the program simply execute

dpkg-buildpackage

To upload a package to a PPA you first need to sign it to prove that you are the author. To do this you have to execute the following in the <packagename><newversion> directory

debuild -S

sudo apt-get install dput

Now change to <somedir> and execute

dput ppa:<your_username>/<repository> <source.changes>

## Secure Owncloud setup

While the Owncloud Manual suggests enabling SSL, it unfortunately does not go into detail how to get a secure setup. The core problem is that the default SSL settings of Apache are not sane as in they do not enforce strong encryption. Furthermore the used default certificate will not match your server name and produce errors in the browser.

In the following a short guide in how to set-up a secure Apache 2.4 server for Owncloud will be presented.

## How to root Android using Ubuntu

update 26.02.2016 – instructions for Android 6 Marshmallow

# The Big Picture

Android consists of three parts relevant to rooting

2. recovery system
3. main system

typically only the main system is running, that is the Linux Kernel, the launcher, the phone app etc.. If we talk about rooting, that means we want to add an additional app to the main system which has access to secured parts of the system and acts as a gatekeeper for other apps that also want to get access.

The problem is the secured parts of the system are locked down – otherwise they would not be secure. This means that we can not simply install that app (e.g. an apk) from within the main system.

Therefore we have to go one level down. This is where the recovery system is. Typically you do not see it, as it is only active when the main system can not run – either because a system update is installed or because you do a factory reset.
As the recovery system can do a full system update, it means that it has also access to the secured parts of the main system – exactly what we need.
The stock recovery system obviously does not allow altering the main system – otherwise everybody could get your private date if you lose your phone.
So we need to replace it as well. But before that we have to talk about the bootloader.

The bootloader is a tiny piece of software which decides whether to start the recovery or the main system (or another main system, like Ubuntu Phone).
In the default configuration in only starts systems that it knows and trusts. In this configuration the bootloader is called locked.
Although this prevents malicious software to change the phone and spy on us, it also prevents us from replacing the recovery system. By the way, this concept is also coming to the PC where it is called UEFI secure-boot.

Here is a graphical overview of the Android components:

So what we need to do in order to get root access is

2. replace the recovery system
3. install a superuser app

Note that unlocking the bootloader also allows attackers to circumvent any of the android security features (PIN etc). It becomes possible to access all the files on the device using a different recovery system. (unless userdata is encrypted)
Therefore android will wipe all userdata when the bootloader state is changed from locked to unlocked.

So if you lose your unlocked device or it gets stolen, you better hope the thief is not tech savvy.

# Preparations

First you need to install the fastboot binary to be able to perform low-level communication with the device

apt-get install android-tools-fastboot

Next you have to allow non-root users to execute commands over USB, so you do not have to run fastboot as root. For this create the file

/etc/udev/rules.d/51-android.rules

with the following content

SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTR{idVendor}=="<VENDOR>", MODE="0666", GROUP="plugdev"

you can find the value for <VENDOR> on the page linked here.

Finally you have to reboot into fastboot mode. Usually there is a key combination you have to press on startup.

Remember this key combination as you will need some more times.

Samsung Devices however, like the Galaxy S3, do not support the fastboot mode – instead they have a download mode, which uses a proprietary Samsung protocol. To flash those you have to use the Heimdall tool. While this article does not cover the heimdall CLI calls, the general discussion still applies.

last warning: this will wipe all user data on the device

for google devices, like a Nexus 4 or Nexus 7 it is just do

fastboot oem unlock

if you have a Sony Xperia device, like a Xperia Z, you additionally have to request a unlock key and then do

fastboot oem unlock 0x<KEY>

where <KEY> is the key you obtained.

# Using AutoRoot to install SuperSU

There are several superuser apps to choose from for Android 4 and below. However the only superuser app working on Android 5/ Lollipop and above is SuperSU by Chainfire.

As there are devices like the Nexus 5X shipping with Android 6/ Marshmallow, I will describe this method first.

Chainfire created an “installer” called AutoRoot that includes the fastboot utility and will perform the unlocking step described above. However if you have read this far, you probably also want to understand the rest of the process.

fastboot boot image/CF-Auto-Root-hammerhead-hammerhead-nexus5.img

the command above will not flash anything on your device, but just upload the image and immediately start it. The image contains a script to modify the main system (change startup to get around SELinux) and install the superuser app.

If everything goes well, you can now just reboot your phone and you are done.

You could lock your bootloader again now to make your device more secure. However the next Android update will remove root again and repeating the rooting procedure will wipe userdata – so you have to balance security update vs. the risk of your device being stolen. For the latter case you still have the option to enable encryption of userdata though.

Android over the air (OTA) updates contain only the changes to the current system. In order to verify that the update succeeded Android computes a checksum of the patched system and reverts to the old state otherwise.

As SuperSU has changed the boot image to start itself, the updates obviously will fail. So to install an OTA update you will have to grab a factory image and restore the boot partition using the included boot.img

fastboot flash boot boot.img

after this you will have to patch the boot partition again using the procedure described above.

Also note that if you use apps that change the system partition (like AdAway that changes the hosts file), you will have to revert those changes as well in order for the OTA update to succeed.

# Optional: Replacing the Recovery System

If you want some advanced features, like backing up all your installed apks, you can permanently replace the recovery image on your device. However this will most likely prevent you from installing OTA updates.
There are two prominent alternative recovery systems with the ability to install apps

Clock Work Mod (CWM) is probably most known so we will use that one. From the Website linked above download the recovery image which fits your phone.
Here you have the choice between the ordinary recovery which uses the volume buttons of your device for navigation and the touch recovery which supports the touch screen.

fastboot flash recovery <RECOVERY>.img

where <RECOVERY> is the name of the file you downloaded. For instance for a Nexus 5 and CWM 6.0.4.5 it would be

fastboot flash recovery recovery-clockwork-6.0.4.5-hammerhead.img

## restoring stock recovery

If you have a Google Nexus Device, you can grab the factory images here.  There you will find a image of the stock recovery. You can restore it by

fastboot flash recovery recovery.img

# Alternative superuser apps

If you run a device with Android older than 5/ Lollipop you have some alternatives to SuperSU:

I would recommend getting Superuser by CWM, as it is open source and also nag-free as there is no “pro” version of it. There is even a pull-request which might make it also work with Android 5 in the future.

To install the app we need to get this zip archive and copy it to the device. Then we need to reboot into fastboot mode and then select “Recovery Mode” to get to the recovery system. Once in Recovery mode select

install zip -> choose zip from /sdcard

then browse and select the “superuser.zip” you just copied.

Once installed select

Go Back -> reboot system now

Once the system has started you should have a “Superuser” App on your device. Congratulations, you are done.

## Debugging native code with ndk-gdb using standalone CMake toolchain

I recently ran into this problem and could not find any good solution on the Internet. So next comes a small summary of the problem with hopefully enough buzzwords, so Google can lead you here.

If you want to do C++ development on Android, you need the NDK for cross compilation. It comes by default with its own build system called ndk-build, which basically is a bunch of custom makefiles. But if you are sharing code between the Android Platform and lets say plain Linux, you have likely already a build system installed. For C/C++ CMake is quite popular as it supports different platforms and compilers. Fortunately there is already a project which adds Android support to CMake. I will not cover that – instead I assume you are using it already.

Unfortunately you cant use the ndk-gdb script supplied with the NDK to debug your application as it relies on the behaviour of ndk-build. But as said earlier, ndk-build is no wizardy, but just a bunch of scripts. So it is possible to emulate the behaviour using CMake, as following:

macro(ndk_gdb_debuggable TARGET_NAME)
get_property(TARGET_LOCATION TARGET ${TARGET_NAME} PROPERTY LOCATION) # create custom target that depends on the real target so it gets executed afterwards add_custom_target(NDK_GDB ALL) add_dependencies(NDK_GDB${TARGET_NAME})

set(GDB_SOLIB_PATH ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/obj/local/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}/)

# 1. generate essential Android Makefiles
file(WRITE ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/jni/Android.mk "APP_ABI :=${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}\n")
file(WRITE ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/jni/Application.mk "APP_ABI :=${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}\n")

# 2. generate gdb.setup
get_directory_property(PROJECT_INCLUDES DIRECTORY ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR} INCLUDE_DIRECTORIES) string(REGEX REPLACE ";" " " PROJECT_INCLUDES "${PROJECT_INCLUDES}")
file(WRITE ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/libs/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}/gdb.setup "set solib-search-path ${GDB_SOLIB_PATH}\n") file(APPEND${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/libs/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}/gdb.setup "directory${PROJECT_INCLUDES}\n")

# 3. copy gdbserver executable
file(COPY ${ANDROID_NDK}/prebuilt/android-arm/gdbserver/gdbserver DESTINATION${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/libs/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}/) # 4. copy lib to obj add_custom_command(TARGET NDK_GDB POST_BUILD COMMAND mkdir -p${GDB_SOLIB_PATH})
add_custom_command(TARGET NDK_GDB POST_BUILD COMMAND cp ${TARGET_LOCATION}${GDB_SOLIB_PATH})

# 5. strip symbols
add_custom_command(TARGET NDK_GDB POST_BUILD COMMAND ${CMAKE_STRIP}${TARGET_LOCATION})
endmacro()

Then use it like

add_library(YourTarget ...)
ndk_gdb_debuggable(YourTarget)


You should now be able to use ndk-gdb with CMake, just as if you would have used ndk-build.

Note that steps 4 and 5 are optional for debugging. They just reduce the size of the library that has to be transferred to the device. If you dont care, you can just leave them out. But then the solib search path from step 2 must be set to:

file(WRITE ./libs/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}/gdb.setup "set solib-search-path ./libs/${ANDROID_NDK_ABI_NAME}\n")

Ideally someone should integrate that in the Android toolchain linked above.

Update Merged Upstream

## GNOME Project suffering the NIH disease

When I first read about GNOME dropping support for BSD and Solaris, my impression was that this is a good idea to aiming to unify limit resources and get the work done. I was also excited about the idea of the GNOME OS. I think it is necessary to keep the big picture in mind when developing the different components. Previously Ubuntu was the only project that did this and it was also the reason why I started using Ubuntu. Because it made the different parts of Linux work together to achieve the big goal of a great overall system.

But then things started to go wrong. Instead of picking existing components and giving them the final polish like Ubuntu did before, the GNOME project started developing things from scratch without any apparent reason to do so. And even worse: incompatible to existing solutions. It started with the rejection of the appindicator specification implemented by Ubuntu and KDE. At that point it was not clear to me whether the specification was broken or whether the responsible people at GNOME were just ignorant.

Then came systemd. And it started to be apparent that unfortunately it was the latter. To my knowledge Ubuntu is the biggest deployment of GNOME and it is based around the Linux ecosystem. So dropping support for Ubuntu has nothing to do with unifying limited resources. Ubuntu is your target audience, so if you should try to collaborate with a project you should collaborate with Ubuntu. My opinion on that is that some Fedora developers were pissed that the Unity interface was exclusive for Ubuntu and instead of packaging it for Fedora they started making GNOME Shell exclusive for Fedora.

Next I read about the overlay scrollbars re-developed for GNOME. While the first reaction might be the developers simply do not want to use Ubuntu technology, I think the reason is different. The developer does not seem to have any antipathy towards Ubuntu and if we look at the project he developed the scrollbars for another explanation becomes visible.

But first lets take a step back. Lets take a look at the core of GNOME. By this I mean the programming language it is written in. It is C/GObject; plain C extended with naming conventions and libraries to allow modern paradigms such as object oriented programming and events/ observer pattern. From today’s perspective one might wonder why one should choose this over C++, which integrates most of the features at the language level. But back when the GNOME project started C++ was not mature yet which meant that your program might break with the next compiler update or even the next STL update.

Therefore basing your project on plain C was a good idea. But a few years back it became obvious that programming in C/GObject seriosly lacked behind more modern programming languages like C++, Java and C# for application development.

Unfortunately instead of moving the straightforward route from C to C++, which most of C developers took when C++ matured(that was about 10 years ago), Vala was born.

So instead of using a proven and mature foundation, a new layer of indirection was created to essentially provide the same feature set. Commonly this is referred to as the “not invented here” symptom. A more derogative phrase would be reinventing the wheel..

What is sad here is that being an open source project, GNOME disregards the biggest advantage of open source software, namely standing on the shoulders of giants. With open source software you can use take an existing solution and improve upon it. This way you get the base functionality as well as the bug fixes that went in it for free. If you would develop it from scratch, you most likely would have to fix the same bugs again yourself.

To sum up here is what GNOME is losing right now

• 30 years of language and library experience by using Vala instead of C++
• 5 years of deployment and bug fixing by using systemd instead of extending upstart
• 1 year of development testing and design if they reimplement overlay-scrollbars
• 8 years of foundation development that went into Eclipse, by developing Gnome Builder from scratch
• but most importantly: the synergy effects by collaborating with others

Do not get me wrong, I am not saying that the GNOME solutions could be replaced by existing solutions – I am saying that by extending existing solutions the GNOME project and the free software landscape would be better off as a whole.